Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor: Meaning & Importance

Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), is a monomeric glycoprotein that acts as a cytokine in humans. Macrophages, mast cells, T cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and natural killer cells, secrete GM-CSF. Although the release of human GM-CSF is local, it can act in a paracrine fashion to recruit circulating monocytes, lymphocytes, and neutrophils to enhance host defense mechanisms. Unlike colony-stimulating factor 3 that specializing in the proliferation and maturation of neutrophils, GM-CSF stimulates a spectrum of cell types.

Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), also known as colony stimulating factor 2 (CSF2), is a monomeric glycoprotein that acts as a cytokine in humans. Human GM-CSF is encoded by the CSF2 gene, which is located on chromosome 5q31. The glycosylated granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is an immune system growth factor that stimulates the production of white blood cells by the bone marrow, which fight the infection. Also known as sargramostim, it’s used to treat infections or inflammation caused by conditions such as AIDS or cancer related disease. It may also be used to help reduce the risk of death in premature infants, although scientific evidence doesn’t support its effectiveness in this process.

GM-CSF is a glucose-regulated protein secreted by macrophage cells and involved in the modulation of the immune response, or defense mechanism, of the body. Its actions mainly induce the release of primary and secondary granulocytes (a type of white blood cell called neutrophils) from bone marrow to peripheral blood, thus increasing the number and activity of circulating granulocytes in addition to stimulating the maturation of monocytes.

Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) Meaning – It  is a cytokine encoded by the LIF gene. LIF affects cell growth by inhibiting cell differentiation. Decreased levels of LIF signals to cells to differentiate. As a precursor protein, it is translated as a 202 amino acid protein and then is processed into a 20 kD protein in an active form. It forms compact helical bundles made of four helices. It is a cytokine that binds to its receptor, known as the LIF-receptor (LIFR), and complexes with another signal-transducing subunit called GP130.

LIF (Leukemia inhibitory factor) is a cytokine that helps develop and maintain the placenta during pregnancy. It is present in maternal blood, as well as the amniotic fluid that surrounds the fetus. The embryo makes its own LIF, which is important for implantation and embryogenesis. During embryo development, LIF is made by the trophoblast (outer layer of cells), and later by the fetal liver and kidneys.

Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is an embryonic cytokine central for early mouse development, playing important roles in preimplantation stage, in the maintenance of pluripotency of embryonic stem cells, and in controlling differentiation. In the absence of LIF, embryonic stem cells differentiate into trophectoderm; however, they can be maintained as pluripotent cells if cultured with LIF. LIF also regulates apoptosis by blocking cell death in oocytes and preimplantation embryos.

LIF is a cytokine encoded by the LIF gene. LIF is an IL-6 class protein that inhibits cell differentiation, affecting cell growth. LIF binds to the LIF receptor, creating a heterodimer with the signal-transduction subunit gp130.

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